The Sudan is considered one of the richest countries it the world in terms of natural resources. It is endowed with fertile agricultural lands, potable wealth, minerals and tourist sites. Sudan is also characterized by its vast virgin areas and varied climates a matter that makes the country capable of the production of different cereals and horticultural crops.
The Sudan has areas that range between 300 to 400 million feddans of arable lands, only 40 million feddans of which are currently cultivated. Lands in Sudan include desert and semi-desert soils, clay plains, sand dunes, rocks soil and the black southern soils.
Jabal Mara Mountain is the highest point above the sea level (more than 13,000 feet). There are also Nuba Mountains and Imatong Hills of South Sudan with their beautiful equatorial sceneries.
Sudan is rich in water resources, whose major sources are:
a) Rains: the rainy season extends from the month of May to October. The rate of rainfall ranges annually between 25 mms in the far north, mostly desert, to 1500 mms in the south, mostly equatorial areas.
b) Rivers: The great River Nile which crosses the whole country from south to north. It has a number of tributaries mainly including the White Nile, the Blue Nile, Bahr Al-Zaraf, Bahr Al-Zaraf, Sobat River, Dindir, Rahad and River Atbara.
c) Underground Water: Sudan has underground water from different sources in its northern, southern, eastern and western parts. The total underground water reserves in the country are estimated at about nine billion cubic meters.
Sudan is characterized by varied climatic conditions, where there is the desert and semi-desert climate in the North, poor, rich savannah in the Central parts and the equatorial climates prevail in the Southern areas, besides moderate climates in areas with high altitudes, such as Jabal Mara area in the Western part of the country, Erkawit in the east and Nuba Mountain in Central Sudan .
This climatic diversity has made Sudan capable of producing various types of cereals and horticultural crops.
Forests in Sudan cover more than 40% of the total area of the country; the most important forestry products in Sudan include Gum Arabic, Timber and various kinds of forest fruits.
There are vast areas of natural pastures in the Sudan on which animal resources depend. These natural pastures need protection and renewal as well encouraging of settlement for the nomadic tribes by providing drinking water for human use and animals from the underground water resources in the area.
Sudan assumes the top place among the countries of the Middle East regarding the animal wealth and ranks the second in Africa. It has a national herd of about 135 million heads of livestoc (cattle - Camels - Sheep - goats - horse species). The animal resources contribute considerably to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country.
Sudan is characterized by the availability of natural water resources which are rich of feeds for fish. These water surfaces have great potentials for fishery production which are yet to be invested fully. There are great opportunities for fish production at the lakes of dams of Roseiris, Sinnar and Jabal Awlia and the Nuba Lake ol Aswan dam. Only 30% of the total fish resources in the country have been utilized so far.
Modern poultry production, introduced recently in the country, has been successful in the Sudan.
Poultry farms spread around the National Capital, Khartoum, and some other states of the country. Their production meets the needs of the local markets. Poultry production enjoys comparative advantage in Sudan.
The utilization of petroleum resources is considered as the biggest achievement realized by the country in recent years. Sudar who had been importing oil against a bill of 400 million dollars a year (half of its revenues of foreign exchange) has now, after utilization of its oil resources as of August 1998, realized self - sufficiency and entered the club of oil exporting countries.
Sudan is endowed with a vast mineral wealth, which is stil greatly unexploited. The Sudan has deposits of gold, silver, iron. zinc, copper, chrome uranium, gypsum, mica and other metal used in building. As part of the country's utilization of its mineral resources, there is the project for gold mining in eastern Sudan undertaken by Arab Company, which is a joint venture between Sudan and France.
The company's production is continuously increasing. There are also a number of projects, which are under implementation, such as copper mining in south Darfur.
Sudan has great potentialities in the field of tourism.The African country is also rich with antiquities of historical civilizations and remnants of great kingdoms, including Palaces, temples, churches and pyramids besides the antiquities of the Islamic civilization. The most important antiquities sites in Sudan are located at the areas such as the Gezirat Sai, Tabo, Sadinga, old Dongola, Karma, Al-Karo, Nuri, Jabal Al-Barkal, and Merawi in the Northern State besides Naqa & Masawarat near Wad Banaga locality in the Nahar Al-Neel state.
Archaeological sites are also found at the areas of Suba, soutl Khartoum, and Sinnar in Central Sudan beside Swakin in the east El-Fashir and Tura, north of Jabal Mara in western Sudan.
These sites are registered in the international heritage record in London.
There are a number of museums in Sudan, top of them are the National Museum, Ethnography Museum, Natural History Museum, Khalifa House Museum and the Military Museum. All these museums are located in Khartoum. There is also the Sultan Ali Dinar Museum which is located in El-Fashir, North Darfur State.
Sudan has also natural Park reserves, such as Al-Dindir Park which is considered as the biggest reserve in Africa. There are also tourist attractions at Jabal Mara area. With its magnificent natural scenery and the other natural marine gardens in the Red Sea coast, which is considered among the most beautiful coasts in the world where divers can enjoy good times.