Early history of human life in Sudan dates back to about 25,000 years, as evidenced by the discovery of what is known as the relics of Singa man.
There are four main sites and some other small ones, whose history dates back from 750 BC to 500 AD. Temples and pyramids, which are restored and kept in good shape, stand witness to those great civilizations, which once prospered in the Sudan and influenced large parts of Africa.
Visits to the relics of Merowe Kingdom usually take two days and one night for the visitor to be fully acquainted with the many sites and relics. Further north of Merowe is Barkal, the Metropolis of the Napatan kindgom, which lies some 400 km north of Khartoum. Visitors will cross the Bayouda desert, a southern part of the western desert. It is a typical desert atmosphere scattered with sand dunes, thorny acacia trees and thick bushes.
Upon arrival at the massive Barkal Mount, the sacred and sanctimonious abode for the ancient Napatan kings, visitors will find our well equipped camp ready to accommodate their every need, Our camps are fully equipped and our guides well acquainted with the traces and sites of the greatest civilization ever to be found in Africa.
The region abounds with pyramids, royal burial grounds, temples and lush greenery of palm date orchards along the river Nile.
A tour may take more than a week after crossing the Western Nuba desert for a distance of 150 km that takes from five to six hours drive due to the sandy roads. Reaching the Nile after the blazing and scorching desert is a real delight and blessing. The ancient town of Kerma comprises one of the oldest and unique civilizations of Sudan and Africa (2800 BC). Western archeological expedition has repeatedly discovered evidence of the uniqueness and wonders of Kerma civilization. The amphors found in great quantities is characterized with fine quality and artistical nuances unparalleled in the ancient world.
Further north are the archaeological relics belonging to the modern Egyptian kingdom - the two temples of Soleb and Sadenga, not far from the Nile.
In the adjacent Western desert, which is part of Great Sahara, tours for desert lovers could readily be organized amid sand dunes and sparse oasis where gazelles and rabbits are found. The length of such tours may be defined by the tourists.
It is worth mentioning that most of the archaeological sites are located along the ancient caravan routes. Sudan at that time served as a crossroad for African, Hellenic, Egyptian and Mediterranean civilizations. Hence several vital Sudanese towns sprang to accommodate the movements and busy activity of transit caravans.
Most notable among such towns are Shendi, Suakin, Berber, Kassala, Dongola, Melit and Omdurman. These can be visited through tour programs. The town of Kassala in eastern Sudan acts as an example of an urban center for the famous Beja tribes (Kippling's fuzzy wuzzy) and the Rashaida people of the Arab peninsula. The town is known for its old traditional markets, artifacts, industries and silver ware.
Suakin's old port, on the other hand, dates back to the times of prophet Suleiman.
In western Sudan, along the borders with Libya, is the town of Melil that stands as the starting point of the 40-day-road. This famous historical route joins West Africa with the Middle East via Sudan. Although the road has lost its aura and continental importance today, it is still used by some tribes to herd camels to the markets of Egypt. Moreover, Melit town is regarded as a large camel market not for Sudan alone, but for neighbouring African countries as well.